Diversity, Division, Peace?

September 26, 2007 at 12:42 pm Leave a comment

Two different experiences today made me wonder the extent to which this book I’m trying to finish is actually relevant to the present.

Before I left this morning for the Spiritual Library, a private library owned by the local Catholic Church, I read an email from a colleague in the US who asked what I thought of recent bipartisan calls for the partition of Iraq into three separate states.  

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I was on my to Aziziyah, where Mazin, our new friend and a library volunteer, thought I might be able to find some sources helpful for this book. (Mazin is a biochemistry graduate about to go to Germany for a year’s study, and he just likes being in libraries.) On the way, I asked the taxi driver about the music I was hearing, and he told me it was Kurdish. He is a Kurd, from Aleppo, and he reassured me there are Kurds in many places.

I met Mazin in front of a different church–they tell me 11 different kinds of Christians live in Aleppo. (While I was waiting and watching the two nuns wearing habits across the street, I mused on their clothing and women’s dress in the city.)

I came home thinking about various Christians, the Kurds, and the red-haired driver last night who told me he was from Antioch. He had actually never been there, he said, but his grandparents came from there, and they speak Turkish. I thought about all the times I’ve heard people explain to me that Syria is a very diverse country.

I spend most of my time here writing about the French mandate in Syria, especially the 1930s. The French appeared in the mountains of what we now call Lebanon centuries ago, claiming that they were there to protect Christians. Their behavior, their “protection,” the special privileges that resulted for many Christians, elicited a significant amount of animosity in some circles, animosity that many historians believe helped to produce anti-Christian riots in the middle of the nineteenth century. Needless to say, after the riots the French were even more convinced of the need to “protect” Christians.

That need to protect groups now more broadly labeled “minorities” provided the ideological justification for the French occupation of Syria after World War I, at least in French eyes. The French decided that they actually needed to separate one group from another, and divided what is now Syria into four different statelets, an Alawi state on the northern coast (based in Lattakia), a Druze state in the southwest, and two Sunni states, one centered in Damascus and another in Aleppo.

While using the language of protection, and convincing themselves that all these people couldn’t possibly be expected to live together, French administrators within Syria were also writing of their fears that Muslims wanted to recreate an Islamic empire, that Syrians were inherently anti-Western and specifically anti-French. Dividing the country would clearly be essential in order to prevent such plans.

Iraqis had hardly lived in a paradise, but they had clearly lived together. Apparently, even now Iraqis are trying to avoid separating into confessional groups. Why would a bipartisan group in Washington think dividing the country into three parts might be a good idea? (Oh, yes, and, after all, didn’t the partition of South Asia into India and Pakistan in 1947 lead to peace for all time?)

I guess the other observation on the relevance of my research will wait.

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Entry filed under: Colonialism, History, Syria, US Government.

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